Chemical formula: Cl2
Molecular Weight: 70.9 g / mole
Density: 0.0032 g/cm3
Boiling point: -34° C
Critical temperature: 143.9 ° C
Vapor pressure: 85.3 psi
Physical appearance: Gas and liquid
Chlorine is the second member of the halogen family in the periodic table represented by the chemical symbol CL and atomic number 17. It has an atomic weight of 35.5 gr / mol.
Chlorine is a yellowish-green gas, it has a very odorous and suffocating odor similar to bleach, and is highly toxic and highly reactive due to a free electron in its final layer.
Chlorine gas is more dense than air, so it is closer to the Earth's surface.
Chlorine becomes liquid when cooled and pressurized, making it easier to transport and store, but if released, it is again transformed into a gas that spreads rapidly around the earth.
A brief history of Chlorine Gas
Chlorine is derived from the term chloros, meaning yellowish green color, discovered in 1774 by the German-French chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele.
In 1810, British scientist Humphrey Davy chose the name Clare for this element.
For the first time in 1915, during the World War II, the German army used chlorine gas in France, resulting in many irreparable injuries.
Production of chlorine gas
Chlorine is found in nature only in combination with other elements, mainly sodium, in the form of NaCl (table salt), as well as in carnalite and silicate. Chlorine is usually obtained by electrolysis of sodium chloride solution.
Applications of chlorine gas
1. Using chlorine gas in water treatment
2. Eliminate bacteria and other germs in drinking water supplies with the help of chlorine gas
3. Use of chlorine gas in the cleaning of pool water
4. Bleaching the pulp with chlorine gas and preparing paper products
5. Use of chlorine gas in the preparation of disinfectants
6. Use of chlorine gas in the preparation of pigments
7. Use of chlorine gas in the preparation of insecticides
8. Use of Chlorine gas in food preparation
9. Use of chlorine gas in the preparation of paints
10. Providing petroleum products such as plastic with the help of chlorine gas
11. Use of chlorine gas in the preparation of medicines
12. Use of chlorine gas in the manufacture of textiles
13. Use of chlorine gas in the preparation of solvents
14- Use of chlorine gas in the production of mustard gas
15. Chlorine gas is an oxidizing and substituting agent in organic compounds
16. Use of chlorine gas in the preparation of chlorates, chloroform and carbon tetrachloride
17. Use of chlorine gas as an important factor in bromine extraction
The main differences between “cl2” and “cl”:
1: “cl2” is asphyxiant but “cl” is Toxic.
2: “cl2” is Nonflammable. “cl” is strongly oxidant and inflammable (highly combustible).
3: “cl2” has little effect on skin while “cl” is very corrosive to skin and melts its fat and does serious damage to lung tissues and blood.
The chlorine that is used in water treatment facilities and pools, is “cl2” but the chlorine in whitening agents such as “Whitex Bleach” is “cl”. That’s why, considering Health and Safety, it’s important to distinguish what kind of chlorine we’re dealing with.
Chlorine in the vicinity of fire can cause fire. Chlorine can cause severe damage to the skin and eyes. Because of the corrosive nature of chlorine gas, Stainless steel 316 should be used for its containers. Chlorine stimulates the respiratory system, especially in children and the elderly. Chlorine in the gaseous state causes swelling of the mucous membrane and, in liquid, causes skin burns.
Exposure to this gas should not exceed 0.5 ppm (weighted average of 8 hours - 40 hours per week)
Severe exposure to excessive amounts of concentrated chlorine (but not lethal amounts) can cause lung edema or dehydration, which is a very unfortunate situation. Continuous exposure to small amounts of those weakens lungs and increases the vulnerability of the lungs to other diseases. When bleaching agents are mixed with ammonia, urea and other detergent products, there is a possibility of producing toxic gases. These gases contain a mixture of chlorine gas and nitrogen trichloride, so such a combination should be avoided.
Chlorine gas sales
In the gaseous state, chlorine gas is usually supplied in 40 and 60 kg cylinders (the cylinders can be both integrated and double layers).
Liquid chlorine gas is usually sold in 400 and 800kg cylinders.
Chlorine gas is produced domestically and supplied to consumers in the country.
Chlorine gas laboratory grade is fully imported and has limited use.
Chlorine gas cylinders are yellow because of their toxicity.