Getting familiar with soap as the first cleaner dates back to centuries ago, but human population growth and human attention to health have caused natural soap production not to be sufficient to today’s consumption. As a result, since the early nineteenth century, artificial detergents were introduced to the market. The use of detergents expanded after World War II. In general, compounds that, in addition to dissolving and dispersing in water, increase its cleansing power, is called detergent. Types of natural cleansers such as soap, mud, etc. have been used since ancient times, but today what is used as a detergent is synthetic (artificially produced). The introduction of these materials into human life has quickly reduced the use of a variety of natural cleaners. Foaming of soaps in water that contains calcium and potassium salts will be delayed, as a result, these salts reduce the cleansing power. While this problem has been largely overcome due to the specific formulation of the detergents.
The chemical components of a cleaner are generally classified into three general categories:
1) surfactants (surface active agents or effective agents)
2) Manufacturers (fillers)
3) Misc material
Surfactants act as a wetting agent to reduce the surface tension of the water, resulting in water entering better into the fiber tissue. These materials also connect dirty particles and water to each other.
Manufacturers have a major role in cleansing and are a detrimental factor. Constructors, magnesium ions and the calcium, existent in hard water, all, form large water-soluble ions. The constructors produce alkaline properties in water and prevent spots from reconnecting. Today, the most commonly used generators are polyphosphates. Cleaners have other different materials, such as gloss, perfumes, anti-corrosion agents, enzymes, plasticizers, perfumes and de-glossers.
Detergents are essentially organic compounds of carbonate chains, which have 2 hydrophilic and lipophilic poles. Hydrophilic pole, water-loving, and lipophilic pole is fat-friendly.
Depending on the characteristics of the hydrophilic polygon, the detergents are divided into 3 groups:
1) Anionic detergents: These compounds are separated by ionization in an aqueous medium to negative ions in which R is a long-chain carbonate chain and a positive ion, often sodium. The most used detergents in homes and public use are in this group.
2) cationic detergents: These detergents are ionized by positive ions in the ammonium group that is water repellent and the group is a negative water absorbent ion and has high bactericidal power.
3) Neutral detergents: These cleaners result from the combination of several ethylene branches on a root that repels water, and the best example is (Polyethylene glycol nonylphenyl ether), which has a strong cleansing effect.
The detergents are divided into hard and soft substrates based on surfactants, which include soft detergents containing LABS or linear alkyloxybenzene sulfonate which is degradable. Hard detergents, which include ABS or alkaline benzyl sulfonate, are one of the most common sources of sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate, which cannot be decomposed in the environment because of its environmental contamination.
In advanced countries, with the promotion of health and the cleanliness of the living environment, the use of cleaners has undoubtedly increased and is necessarily accompanied by economic considerations. To draw a future that is less likely to be mistaken or misleading, an attitude to the process of product development, formulation changes, and the consumption of different materials across the globe is essential. In general, in advanced countries, detergents have been affected by changes in product formulation, such as the tendency to produce phosphate-free products or the desire to make heavy powders, etc.
Soaps can be made from alkaline hydrolysis of fats and natural oils (ester of fatty acids with glycerol) such as lemon, coconut oil, olive, palm, and tallow, which is called the saponification process:
C3H5 (OOCR3) + 3NaOH → 3NaOOCR + C3H5 (OH)3
It should be noted that in new methods, direct hydrolysis of lipids is used by water at high temperatures. This makes possible the purification and isolation of fatty acids that are neutralized into soaps, which is the basis of a continuous process. From a chemical point of view, soaps, metal salts of fatty acids (carboxylic acids) are rectangular with about 10-18 carbon atoms. Although all the metal salts of fatty acids are soap, only alkaline salts such as sodium and potassium are soluble in water and have a cleansing effect. Alkaline salt of earthen metals (such as calcium and magnesium, etc.) do not dissolve in water. Consequently, ordinary soaps are deposited in hard water adjacent to calcium and magnesium ions. So the soap does not lather well and it loses its cleansing qualities.
Aluminum salts of acids are also insoluble in water and soluble in oils, and are used in softening fats, paint, polish oil and in waterproofing materials. The salt of heavy metal acids, such as cobalt or copper, are also used as a drying agent in construction colors and inks, fungicides and waterproofing materials. The quality and superiority of a soap depends on the type of oil which is used. Therefore, they are used for their purest characteristic and their most inodorous value. Besides the fat and alkali, other additives are also added to the formulation of soap. These materials include oxidizing prevention agents such as triethanolamine , antioxidant , such as dicyano diamido sodium sulfanilate, perfume oils to produce scented soap, and so on.
Synthetic detergents that are used today, such as soap, are composed of a hydrocarbon chain attached to the salt of a water-soluble acid. Of course, in order to provide these cleaners, it should be noted that the length of the chain and the type of the used hydrocarbon are appropriately selected. Polar derivatives of sulfuric acid are widely used to replace carboxylates. For example, alkali sulfates (ROSO3Na), alkanosulfonates (RSO 3 Na) and alkyl aryl sulfonates (R-C6H4 -SO3Na) can be mentioned. Among the most important of these, sodium lauryl (dodecyl) sulfate (C12H25-OSNa) and sodium dodecyl benzenesulfonate (C12H25 -C6H4-SO3-Na) with high cleansing power.
Esthers and amides of fatty acids, which are prepared from turin (H2NCH2CH2SO3H) and aceticatonic acid ( HOCH2CH2SO3H ), are among the first synthetic compounds. In addition, alkan phosphonates represent another type of anionic synthetic material. On the other hand, it is possible to modify and alter the polar groups by changing the signal of the charge of the active ion, on the surface of the route. A very famous example of cationic detergent (invert soaps), the fourth type of ammonium is C16H33N(CH3)Br.
On the other category, the inorganic detergents, the polar group is a non-integrated water-soluble group, which usually contains a multiplicity of oxygen functions (ether and alcohol) selected in the hydrogen bonding with water
An example in this case, is Esther which is made from fatty acids and sugars. Of the other general types, one can mention the polymerization of a number of ethylene oxide units with an alcohol which has the general formula R-O-(CH2CH2O)2H. Also, amine oxides such as R-N(CHsub>3)2 →O and their related phosphine oxides are also available. The most important synthetic detergents are:
Liquid soap, in fact, is not considered to be soap in terms of ingredients, and it is a synthetic cleanser. Of course, if you use a lot of coconut oil or oils like linseed oil in a regular building, you can make the soap liquid . Liquid soaps, in addition to their original material, have other ingredients, such as softener, cleanser, foam, antibacterial and lubricating.
Shampoos are also synthetic cleansers. The main ingredient of the shampoos consists of: a cleansing agent that itself contains three active anionic surfactants (such as sodium lauryl ether sulfate and triethanolamine sulfate , amphoteric (e.g. betaine cocoamidopropyl ) and nonionic . The foam enhancer (such as betaine ), Hair styling agent and preservative ( disinfectant and germicide), oily agent such as ethylene glycol and a thickening agent such as salt and a color and odor agent such as the extract of plants .
Powder washing machines add a few substances to the laundry powder, which adds to their cleansing power. One of these materials is borate , which has whitening and color. The main components of laundry detergents include:
The main active ingredient (nonionic and anionic material), which is a cleansing agent and detachment of dirt from clothing, an alkaline agent (such as silicates) that prevents corrosion of the washing machine, bleaching agent and vinegar color are usually sodium perborate, an agent Foam controller and auxiliary cleaner, reduces the hardness of the water that helps to clean (like phosphates), prevents rebonding agents such as CMC from rewinding dirt on the cloth, Optical Bratz that brightens the fabric. Germicide and disinfectant.
Bleaches and Colors
Many of the spots are substances that are used as bleach, disinfectant and cleanser. The most commonly used substance, which is used as a bleach agent, is jelly water , which also has a disinfectant effect, because it is a chlorite bleach, and from other bleaches, sodium perborate, which is more common in dry matter, as well as In the combination of washing machines powders are used. The whitening power is lower than Javel water.
Oxygenated water or hydrogen peroxide is also a bleaching agent. In addition to the materials mentioned above, substances such as alcohol, ammonia, acetone, nitric acid, oxalic acid, turbinate, baking soda, sodium carbonate, carbon tetrachloride, etc. also have a clearing and cleansing effect.
Comparison of soap and synthetic detergents
Soap, when reacting with the impurities of metallic ions in natural waters, especially calcium and magnesium, leads to the formation of insoluble salts in water and sediment from water. But salts of alkaline earth metals and heavy metal salts of synthetic detergents are soluble in water. Therefore, these detergents also have good cleansing properties in hard water and do not form new deposits.
Carboxylic soaps are hydrolyzed at pH below and acidified as insoluble acid, but synthetic detergents exhibit a high degree of stability against acidity. Because soap cleaners are salts that form the anions, they belong to weak acids and are easily hydrolyzed in the acidic environment.
Other differences in the synthetic detergents with soaps are the modification and modification of the structure of these materials to the soap molecule , which creates the best balance of water-friendliness and solubility properties, the effect of microbial and softness in textiles, and so on.
Synthetic detergents alone are not equivalent to soap cleansers, but two significant enhancers significantly increase their fermentation potential. Sodium tripolyphosphate, used as a manufacturer, can break and suspend some clay soils, colors and other very water-soluble solids. In addition, the body is composed of a large number of metal ions, which are chelates. Homemade cookers also contain half to one percent of carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), which is produced by the reaction of cellulose with chloroacetic acid in a solution of the game.
This polymeric material is able to prevent resin deposits from scrubbing by cleaning agents. Other common enhancements include bleaching agents, foaming agents or other regulating agents.
micelles, micelles, aggregates of surfactant molecules that arrange themselves in a spherical form in aqueous solutions = micelles, micelles, the accumulation of surfactant molecules spherically in aqueous solution
Mixtures are spherical masses, the inner part of which is hydrocarbon. The concentration of detergent in which the first micelles are formed is the critical concentration of micelles. The size of the mix is measured in a quantity called the accumulation number.
Solubility of detergent molecules in water usually increases with increasing temperature, and usually at a certain temperature the solubility is significantly increased, which is referred to as kraft temperature. Note that some detergents do not comply with this law . That is, with increasing temperature, their solubility decreases. Reducing the kraft point increases the production of micelles .
When a drop of water is placed on one surface, two conditions may occur; this droplet can be widespread and wet, or stay stable in the form of a droplet, in which case the surface is wet has not done. Reducing the surface tension of water by adding a mixture can turn a non-abrasive solution into a moisturizing solution. One of the functions of a detergent is to suspend solid particles in a liquid such as water. This phenomenon is called as dispersion.
The floors are made up of gas bubbles, with walls of thin film films that create three-dimensional structures. There is a connection at the intersection of gas bubbles. The liquid is drawn from the walls by gravity to the junction. Detergents can increase the amount of foam with effect on electrostatic properties, surface viscosity, total viscosity and film elasticity.
When an insoluble material such as oil is added to the water containing detergent, there is a possibility of emulsion formation. This emulsion can be oil in water or water in oil. Two other modes may also occur: one is the dissolution of oil in water or the formation of micro-emulsions.
Here are some of the noteworthy products that are used as Cleaners and disinfectants: Bleach, Caustic Solution, Perchlorate, Texapon, Sulfonic Acid, Formalin, Ferric chloride, Coconut acid, Betaine, Hydrochloric acid, Chlorine gas, Vanadium(V) oxide. and etc…
The most common substance that is used as a bleach is Javel water. The main and effective ingredient in Javel water is Sodium Hypochlorite ( NaOCl ). Sodium hypochlorite is an extremely potent compound that a very little portion of it (5%) is mixed in water and is marketed with various names as whitening agents. Therefore, bleach and juice water are the same solution of 5% Sodium Hypochlorite.
The advantage of Javel water is that it also has a disinfectant effect, because it is a chlorine based bleacher. Adding a small amount of Sodium perborate to Javal water increases its whitening power. It should be noted, however, that Sodium Hypochlorite solution is unstable and, in the vicinity of light and heat, decomposes the OCl ion, which releases oxygen and, as a result, decreases its intensity. Therefore, it is kept in opaque containers as well as away from heat. It is also better to use fresh solutions, because it will be easily decomposed when overstays for a while.
Sodium hydroxide is a potent chemical that is characterized by the chemical formula NaOH and the names of Caustic Soda, solid percolate, and sometimes industrial fatty acid. This is an ionic compound containing sodium Na + cation and anion OH hydroxide. Caustic Soda is used in various fields, including chemical production, synthetic silk, pulp and paper, aluminum, petrochemicals, textiles, soaps and detergents. Also in laboratories, alkaline solution of standard sodium hydroxide is used to determine the concentration of unknown acids in the acid-free volumetric (titration) assay.
Chlorine powder (calcium hypochlorite) is a white matter disinfectant that is used to disinfect water, vegetables, fruits, utensils, baths, toilets and infected areas. This material is usually available in the market with a purity of 60-70%. One way to prevent intestinal congestion is to disinfect drinking and drinking water and fruits and vegetables with chlorine powder solution. The cause of many intestinal epidemics (cholera, etc.) is a very diverse organism that is not seen with the eye. These organisms are contaminated by eating vegetable and fruit juices or by transferring them by hand or insects to food and containers into the human body, causing illness.
Texapon is a relatively inexpensive substance that is used in the production of most detergents. It is a semi-transparent, viscous white paste with a gentle smell and is an anionic surfactant that is used as a common detergent in most health and body products, and is an accelerator in dissolving and defatting. Sodium lauryl ether sulfate (SLS) or sodium lauryl sulfate sodium (SLS), Ammonium lauryl sulfate (ALS) are substances of this family that have similar uses. They function like soap and are used as emulsifier and lathering agent in most detergent, cosmetics and health products.
Sulfonic Acid is one of the most low-priced surfactant used in the detergent industry. It is a brownish liquid and has two industrial and laboratory grades. Sulfonic acid is used in the production formulation of many powder and liquid detergents. The role of sulfonic acid in the detergent formula is to clean and eliminate stubborn stains and also as a foaming agent. Sulfonic acid is a water-soluble, non-volatile and moisture absorbing agent. It is also used as an emulsifier, an additive, lubricant, and corrosion and rust preventer.
Formalin also known as Methanol, Formaldehyde, Methylene oxide, Methyl aldehyde, dissolves well in water and is polymerized in water, including small HCHO monomers which are connected together. Formalin often has a small percentage of methanol to limit polymerization. Formaldehyde has properties like other aldehydes. The difference is that it’s usually more reactive than other aldehydes. Formalin is used to remove bacteria as an antiseptic solution.
Iron chloride, also called ferric chloride or ferric chloride, is an industrial scale chemical compound with FeCl3 formula, and with an iron element in oxidation mode +3. Iron chloride (III) is made from the direct combustion of chlorine gas with iron in a suitable heat condition; or from the combination of hydrochloric acid with iron and the oxidation of iron chloride (II) produced by chlorine gas; or from compounding the iron with iron (III) chloride and re-oxidizing it. Iron chloride (III) is rarely occurring in its natural form. The mineral and natural form of it is called “molysite” and is classified into two types of solid and liquid. Ferric chloride is severely corrosive and sometimes evenو tissue corrosion is possible. It is non-flammable and is used for water and wastewater treatment. The boiling point of this material is about 316 °C.
Cocamide DEA, or cocamide diethanolamine, is a diethanolamide made by reacting the mixture of fatty acids from coconut oils with diethanolamine, in the presence of a catalyst. It is a non-ionic surfactant, fairly viscous, fatty, yellow and transparent liquid, and is used as a foaming and foam stabilizing agent, in bath products like shampoos and hand soaps and other detergents, and in cosmetics as an emulsifying agent. Due to the presence of fat, it has a softening, moisturizing, ductility, burn prevention and skin protection, property. It can easily adapt with different surfactants and is used in the production formulas of health and cosmetic products.
Betaine appears as a colorless liquid. It is also called as Trimethylglycine and TMG. Betaine is found in beetroot, spinach and whole grains. Betaine is used as a water hardening agent to improve detergent foaming. It is used as a preservative, foaming agent and softener, as well as for emulsifying. Betaine is sold in bulk and in 200kg barrels.
Hydrogen chloride is a colorless gas with a sharp smell of acidity and heavier than air. It is easily converted into liquid and creates a liquid with no color. It compounds with metals and metal oxides and their hydroxides. Hydrogen chloride gas, if dissolved in water, is called Hydrochloric acid or muriatic acid. Hydrochloric acid is among the strong mineral acids. It is pale and yellowish in color and very corrosive and non-flammable. Hydrochloric acid is found naturally in gastric acid. (pH) of this acid is between 0 and 2. It was historically called acidum salis, muriatic acid and spirits of salt. It is mostly used as household and cleaner.
Chlorine gas is greenish yellow; it has a very suffocating and bad smell, like a bleaching liquid. It is very toxic and extremely responsive due an easily discharged electron in its last layer. Chlorine gas has a higher density than air, which is closer to Earth's surface. When it cools and is under pressure, chlorine turns into a fluid that makes its transport and storage easier, but if released, it will again be converted into a gas that spreads rapidly down close to the ground. Chlorine is usually prepared by electrolyzing of sodium chloride solution. Some of its main applications are in water treatment, preparation of disinfectants, bleaches and mustard gas.
Vanadium oxide, known in the market as Vanadium, is a non-organic compound with the chemical formula of V2O5, commonly known as vanadium pentoxide. It is a yellowish or brownish powder. If it's recently synthesized from a watery solution, it'll be orange. Due to its strong oxidizing properties, it has both amphoteric oxide and an oxidizing agent. It is extremely rare in nature. Its main usage is in Aerospace industry, fuel cell manufacture and industrial production of Sulfuric Acid.